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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| November  | Volume 2 | Issue 4  
    Online since June 7, 2018

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Masked ischemia on myocardial perfusion imaging: A case example
Arash Gholoobi
November 2014, 2(4):6-6
Introduction: Electrocardiography (ECG)-gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most commonly performed imaging procedure in nuclear cardiology. Case Presentation: A 67-year-old man underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG)-gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for evaluating his mild dyspnea on exertion (New York Heart Association class I). Images showed inducible ischemia of severe intensity in the interior walls and moderate intensity in the apicoseptal and anteroseptal segments, but exercise stress to induce coronary hyperemia revealed marked ST-segment depressions in low heart rates and the patient complained of only mild dyspnea during these ECG changes. He subsequently underwent coronary angiography, which revealed left main and severe three-vessel disease. This discrepancy between the SPECT perfusion images and the extent of coronary artery disease in this case represents the masking of one ischemic territory (left system) by another more severely ischemic territory (right system). Discussion: The reason is that we assess the relative and not absolute differences of the tracer uptake in this imaging modality. There may be other findings on MPI images which could help us overcome this pitfall, including detecting wall motion abnormalities, lung uptake of the tracer, or transient ischemic dilation. Another important issue is the ECG changes during exercise stress testing, which could point to a more extensive coronary artery disease than the one detected on MPI images alone.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Biventricular mural thrombi in patients with dilated cardiomyopathies: Case reports and review
Pankaj Jariwala
November 2014, 2(4):5-5
Introduction: The combination of the aging of the population and improved survival after acute myocardial infarction has created a rapid growth in the number of patients currently living with chronic heart failure, with a concomitant increase in morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation: We present two case reports of post-myocardial infarction sequel leading to ischemic cardiomyopathy and peripartum cardiomyopathy leading to biventricular mural thrombi formation and provide a brief review of literature regarding their etiopathogenesis and management. Discussion: There are other causes of dilated cardiomyopathies which could be transient like peripartum cardiomyopathy. The development of biventricular mural thrombi is rare, and it mainly increases the risk of embolization in the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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Echocardiographic evaluation of orthotopic heart transplantation: Single-Center experience
Neda Behzadnia, Babak Sharif Kashani, Mohsen Mirhosseini, Ahmadreza Moradi, Golnar Radmand, Zargham Hossein Ahmadi
November 2014, 2(4):8-8
Background: In patients with advanced heart failure, significant improvement in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies has conferred better survival rates and quality of life. Objectives: This is a report on echocardiographic findings in heart transplantation (HTx) patients in their first 5 postoperative months. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients undergoing HTx between September 2009 and July 2010 whose clinical and echocardiographic findings had been registered monthly for 5 months after HTx were enrolled. Results: Eleven males and five females at a mean age of 33 years [range = 17-58 years] were enrolled in the study. The mean of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 52 ± 8.2 % and 58 ± 2.5 % on the first day and at 5 months after HTx, respectively. There was no LV enlargement at 5 months' follow-up. The right ventricle (RV) was mildly enlarged, but the reduced baseline RV function showed improvement at the 5th postoperative month (mean TAPSE was 11.7 ± 3.3 mm on the first post-HTx day versus 17.2 ± 6.3 mm after 5 months; P < 0.005). The pulmonary arterial pressure was slightly elevated at baseline, and it showed no significant decrease 5 months after HTx. More than 90% of the cases showed only mild tricuspid regurgitation at 5 months' follow-up. The tissue Doppler imaging-derived velocities of the medial and lateral mitral annuli and the tricuspid annulus demonstrated a gradual increment during the follow-up and reached their highest value at 5 months' follow-up. Conclusions: The cardiac grafts at 5 months' post-HTx follow-up were characterized by normal LV dimensions and EF. Also, RV dysfunction and tricuspid regurgitation were frequent findings, but they were not associated with the clinical signs of congestive heart failure, morbidity, and mortality in the majority of our patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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Cardiac CT angiography of a membranous ventricular septal aneurysm short title: Ventricular septal aneurysm
Sedat Altay, Canan Altay, Nezahat Erdogan, Sebnem Karasu, Orhan Oyar
November 2014, 2(4):7-7
The most frequent congenital heart defects in the neonatal period are ventricular septal defects. Ventricular septal aneurysms can rarely develop from an interventricular septal (IVS) defect in adults. We describe a 47-year-old man with an aneurysm in the IVS growing towards the right ventricle, which was confirmed by cardiac computed tomographic angiography and was missed by echocardiography.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Which type of right ventricular pressure overload is worse? An echocardiographic comparison between pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension
Niloufar Samiei, Nooshin Hadizadeh, Mahsa Borji, Arash Hashemi, Mozhgan Parsaee, Maryam Esmaeilzadeh, Zahra Ojaghi Haghighi
November 2014, 2(4):1-1
Background: Some studies have evaluated the right ventricular (RV) function in volume-overload and pressure-overload conditions and have always categorized pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the latter group. However, PAH and pulmonary stenosis (PS) are two frequent diseases, both resulting in the RV pressure overload. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the RV response to two causes of the RV pressure overload: severe PAH and PS. Patients and Methods: Eighteen patients with PAH at a mean age of 43 ± 12 years (66.6% female) and 16 patients with PS at a mean age of 33 ± 17 years (56.35% female) were enrolled. Standard echocardiography, tissue Doppler, and longitudinal strain imaging at the base, mid, and apical levels of the RV free wall were done. Results: Significant tricuspid regurgitation was more prevalent in the PAH group than in the PS group (61% vs. 18.5%; P < 0.001). The abnormalities in the RV myocardial performance index, RV areas, and RV fractional area change were significantly more robust in the PAH group (all Ps < 0.05) despite the higher net RV systolic pressure in the PS group as compared to the PAH group (121 ± 39 vs. 88 ± 26 mmHg; P < 0.001). Conclusions: It seems that severe PAH aggravates the RV function more severely.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Libman-Sacks endocarditis and cerebral infarction in antiphospholipid syndrome: A case report
Farahnaz Nikdoust, Mansoureh Eghbalnezhad
November 2014, 2(4):4-4
Valvular heart disease is a considerable finding in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). The involvement of the mitral and aortic valves is more common in the form of leaflet thickening or aseptic verrucous vegetations called the Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In addition to the detrimental effects of endocarditis on the valves, it can lead to serious thromboembolic complications. Here we report our experience with a young woman, who had a history of transient ischemic attack 2 months earlier and referred to us due to severe vaginal bleeding. On echocardiography, several irregular masses were observed on the atrial side of both mitral valve leaflets. On rheumatologic work-up, she was found to have positive anticardiolipin IgG and lupus anticoagulant. During hospitalization, the patient suffered thrombotic stroke and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a parietal lobe ischemic lesion. With evidence of positive antiphospholipid antibodies and arterial thrombosis, negative blood culture, and no fever, the diagnosis of the Libman-Sacks endocarditis was established. The patient was discharged with good general condition and received Hydroxychloroquine, Warfarin, and Prednisolone. On follow-up echocardiography, intra-cardiac masses were not detected any more and no residual neurologic deficits were found.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Left atrial mechanics in hypertensive patients
Maria J Vieira, Rogerio Teixeira, Lino Goncalves
November 2014, 2(4):2-2
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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An invitation for rethinking about echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with sleep apnea syndrome
Ufuk Eryilmaz, Davran Cicek, Tevfik Fikret Ilgenli
November 2014, 2(4):3-3
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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